Montana State University

MSU Extension Forestry


MSU Extension Forestry provides this Web site as a service for information purposes only. No legal liability or other responsibility is accepted by or on behalf of MSU Extension Forestry for any errors, omissions, or statements on this site, or any site to which these pages connect. MSU Extension Forestry is not responsible for, and expressly disclaims all liability for, any loss, damage or inconvenience arising out of reliance on any information contained within the site. While the information contained within the site is periodically updated, no guarantee is given that the information provided in this Web site is correct, complete, and up-to-date. Although MSU Extension Forestry's Web site may include links providing direct access to other Internet resources, including Web sites, MSU Extension Forestry has not participated in the development of those other sites and does not exert any editorial or other control over those sites. MSU Extension Forestry is not responsible for the accuracy or content of information contained in these sites. Links from MSU Extension Forestry to third-party sites do not constitute an endorsement by MSU Extension Forestry of the parties or their products and services. The appearance on the Web site of advertisements and product or service information does not constitute an endorsement by MSU Extension Forestry, and MSU Extension Forestry has not investigated the claims made by any advertiser. MSU Extension Forestry reserves the right to refuse the provision of links to any external content, for whatever reason deemed fit.

Privacy Statement

The names and contact information on this Web site are published to facilitate contact among those listed for MSU Extension Forestry purposes only. It is not intended, and we request that it not be used, for commercial purposes. Any personally identifiable information supplied by persons or organizations at this site will be used by MSU Extension Forestry for contacting purposes only, and will not be sold or otherwise transferred to unaffiliated third parties.

Product Endorsements

Reference herein to any specific agency, commercial firm, unions, commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by MSU Extension Forestry, or its members.


Common chemical and trade names are used in this publication for clarity by the reader. Inclusion of a common chemical or trade name does not imply endorsement of that particular product or brand of herbicide and exclusion does not imply non-approval. Recommendations are not supposed to replace those provided in the label. Readers should consult the label prior to any application.


The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Montana State University and Montana State University Extension prohibit discrimination in all of their programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital and family status. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Jeff Bader, Director of Extension, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717

ADA Accommodation Statement

Montana State University Extension encourages persons with disabilities to participate in its programs and activities. If you anticipate needing any type of special accommodations or have questions about the physical access provided to MSU Extension Forestry programs, please contact Christina Oppegard, (406) 243-2773,, in advance of your participation or visit.